Tonsil stones are pieces of food and general mouth debris that lodge in cracks and holes in the tonsils. They are compressed into firm balls of smelly disease which are generally an unhealthy thing to have. To treat them, the tonsils can be completely removed, but this is painful and bleeds a lot. Plus it needs a general anaesthetic, and the NHS is reluctant to do it. So that leaves carbon dioxide laser removal of the tonsils under local anaesthetic spray. It's a clinic proce
The patient needs two operations. He has a large antrochoanal polyp running down the back of his nose and blocking the post nasal space of both sides. But to get it out by widening the accessory ostium enough to get instruments into the maxillary sinus, the deviated nasal septum needs correcting so that there is enough angle to do the endoscopic procedure. Large arrow is the big yellow slug-like polyp. Small arrow is the deviated nasal septu blocking the endoscopic approach.